Papaya is also known as papaya, and the fruit can be eaten directly or after being cured. Papaya fruit has high nutritional value and medical value and is often regarded as a good health care product. Papain, also known as papain, is commonly used in brewing processes, tender meat processing, food processing, and medical medicinal purposes. The main producing areas of papaya are subtropical countries such as Uganda, India, and Zaire. The yield is very limited, but there are many importing countries of papaya. Therefore, the price of papaya is gradually rising, and papain is a natural organic product. The pursuit of the people.
1. Papain and its structure
Papaya juice contains papain, papain, papain and other components, while papain itself is a protein, which is a peptide chain consisting of 212 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of up to 27,000, while in papain The 25th cysteine is an active site and has some conservation, regardless of the formation of disulfide bonds.
Papain commonly used in industry is often not refined and purified and is composed of papain, papain, cysteine protease, cellulase, lysozyme, glutamine, and glucose enzyme.
2. Application of papain in food
1) Meat and fish processing
With the improvement of people's economic conditions, the pursuit of quality of life has gradually become higher. People are no longer limited to solving basic food and clothing, but pursuing the taste and shape of food. Papain plays an important role in tender meat powder. If no tender meat powder is added, the meat food will become rough and hard after being cooked by heating, and adding proper amount of tender meat powder will lock the moisture in the meat, making the food taste soft and smooth.
The cysteinyl protease in papain can rapidly degrade myofibrils and connective tissue, and even when processed at a temperature of about 90 °C, it can maintain its own activity, preserve the nutrition of meat, and help the body to digest and absorb. Especially for beef with more tendons, the moderate amount of tender meat powder containing papain can make it taste soft, easy to chew and increase the taste of beef.
For fish, those small and low-value small fish are often less popular, so we can use the hydrolysis properties of papain to produce a higher concentration of hydrolyzed protein, which dissolves the whole fish into protein concentrate. It is made into canned fish or minced fish sausages that are easy to carry and eat. In addition, papain can extend the shelf life of foods, prevent animal meat and bones from spoiling and deteriorating, and often serve as an important medium for the recovery of minced meat from bones in slaughterhouses.
2) Improve beer color and taste
During the long-term storage process, the beer forms a turbid mist due to the action of the high molecular protein, which causes a large amount of precipitation in the originally unstable colloidal solution, which affects subsequent sales and storage. To change this situation, it is necessary to add an appropriate amount of papain in the fermented alcohol to enhance the stability of the beer, hydrolyze the high molecular protein in the beer to avoid turbidity and affect the color, and extend the preservation of the beer. period.
More importantly, papain can change the content of free amino acids in beer, increase the content of amino acids in beer, so that beer can keep foaming. If it is properly added and fully stirred during beer filling, beer can be improved. The taste of the beer increases the nutrients in the beer.
3) Looseness in pastry food
Pastries are often made from flour as a raw material with low protein content. The flour is not high in gluten. Therefore, when using high-gluten flour to make cakes, it is necessary to increase the amount of vegetable oil or egg. If you want to make western-style cakes with soft export, you must reduce the flour to improve the looseness of the cake. effect. The use of papain in flour can hydrolyze the protein in the flour, reduce the flour gluten, and produce biscuits and pastries with excellent flavor and soft taste, which enhances its economic value.
4) Improve bean food
The content of essential amino acids in soy protein is appropriate and the nutritional value is high, but precipitation and viscosity often occur during production and use. The use of papain can change the physicochemical properties of soy protein. The free amino acid in papain acts on the protein, which can make the soy protein gel, and the concentrated soy protein is processed into meat and dairy products, which can improve the nutritional structure in the food and improve economic benefits.
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